Lukas - I don't have much time to answer this one so I'll be brief. The Atlantean civilization had it's spiritual center in what is now the Mediterranean Basin. That civilization exemplified unification, then about 13,000 years ago, the world experienced the shift into seperation (i.e. being thrown out of the Garden of Eden). We used to communicate more telepathically, then all of a sudden, we had to start creating languages, speaking, writing things down.
A bridge once existed between Spain and Africa, and that got destroyed, so the Med Basin flooded. Everyone had to move to different areas. When the breakup happened, there was a certain group that stayed around Egypt that was focused on seperation/time/duality, which comprised the bulk of the people from the Atlantean civilization. Smaller groups of people had a unification experience (meaning, they would have more of an enlightenment experience), and moved to more remote areas of the world (i.e. Americas, UK) so they would not be bothered by the larger group who thought the seperation was the newest, coolest thing. These small groups held the wisdom from the previous Atlantean civilization, and created spiritual paths in places like the Americas, Europe and the Middle East, where mystics could pass on wisdom and techniques secretly.
The Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian (all in modern day Iraq) civilizations were affected by both sides in a variety of ways - culturally, spiritually, economically, etc. At times they were overthrowing each other (i.e. Assyria conquering Babylonia), or were being overthrown by other powers (i.e. Romans, Parthians, etc). Each were simply a piece of the world puzzle which created their own cultural identity that played out for a certain period of time, then were overtaken by other cultures. There were plenty of other cultures like this - Chaldea, Media, Persia, Phoenicia - that simply added to the cultural "soup" of the times.
There were mystical schools/teachers in each of these at different times. From 13,000 BCE - 30 ACE, the spiritual teachings were derived directly from the Atlantean understandings that went underground. Jeshuas' core teachings also used the Atlantean understanding, with elements also taken from other parts of the eastern world - India, Tibet, etc, which had been affected by the breakup of Lemuria even earlier than Atlantis. The Sufi spiritual path actually predates Christianity (also originating from the Atlantean spiritual understandings), and was also influenced by early Christian mystics, and became one of the underground spiritual paths that spread throughout the MidEast.
One of the things that people don't usually understand is that curses can last a long time until they are played out or recalled. There have been curses between the Arabs and Romans that are still playing out. There has been a war waging between the Roman empire and the Arab empire for awhile. This was carried forward with the Catholics and the Muslims, and we saw that it played out even during the Middle Ages in places like Italy/France/Spain with the Moorish conquest. The latest incarnation of this ongoing war is the US vs Iraq.